JOSEPH HAYDN

107 SINFONIE

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Parkhotel Pörtschach

55

"Der Schulmeister"

E flat major

The Project

Order by Hoboken
Hob.I: 55
Chronological order
60
Key
E flat major
Title
"Der Schulmeister"
Period
Middle Esterház-sonfonias 1767 to 1773; „Sturm und Drang“ and the „calm“ afterwards
Date of composition
1774
Customer
Prince Nikolaus I. Joseph Esterházy
Number of movements
4
Authenticity proof
Autograph
Score edition

Sinfonien 1773 und 1774
Herausgeber: Wolfgang Stockmeier; Reihe I, Band 7; G. Henle Verlag München

Symphony No. 55 in E flat major ('The Schoolmaster')
This symphony provides the main example in this volume of Haydn's 'turn' towards a lighter style, which became so important later in the 1770s. The chief sign of this is its inclusion of two theme-and-variation movements, the slow movement and the finale. Whereas previously such movements had been rare in the symphony (most of Haydn's earlier slow movements and finales are in sonata form); now he adopts them as a normal resource.1 Furthermore, this galant orientation in individual movements entailed changes in the patterns of 'weight' and import among the four movements in the cycle, which we will have occasion to note below and in future volumes.
The nickname 'Schoolmaster' for this symphony is spurious; it appears in no eighteenth-century source and as far as is known was not associated with any symphony by Haydn until the lexicographer Ernst Ludwig Gerber did so, in the second decade of the nineteenth century.2 To be sure, Haydn did compose a work with the nickname 'Der Schulmeister': a lost early divertimento bears this nickname in both of his thematic catalogues. Possibly it originated in connection with a children's pantomime by Joseph Kurz(-Bernadon), with whom Haydn collaborated on Der krumme Teufel.3 Hence Gerber may have been aware of the existence of such a work and simply attached the label to the wrong one.
The first movement, although not 'difficult' (see its opening fanfare and cantabile answer), is structurally complex. The exposition rushes forward in typically Haydnesque fashion; typical as well is that the contrasting piano 'theme' is actually an unstable construction, whose inability to cadence is only confirmed by the swift forte interruption. As in No. 54, the development is longer than the exposition much longer, in fact; it comprises three substantial paragraphs in a complex modulatory scheme; the second of these begins with one of Haydn's very best 'false recapitulations'. In the 'true' recapitulation, the winds vary and extend the cantabile phrase in a wonderful new manner.
The variation slow movement bears the remarkable and unique heading 'Adagio, ma semplicemente'. That Haydn's ostensible 'simplicity' is actually a highly self-conscious eccentricity becomes obvious as the final note of the first phrase, which enters 'too soon', in the 'wrong' harmonic context. The theme has written-out repetitions of both halves, for the purpose of contrasting an initial 'sem-plice' statement, dotted-rhythmed and staccato, with a supple, legato 'dolce' statement; the same is true in Variation 2. In Variations 1 and 5 this principle of contrast is worked out in a different way, through dynamics and orchestration, while the pianissimo Variation 3 is a remarkable essay in expressive chromaticism.
The minuet features a 'Scotch snap' rhythm and, yet again, a novel retransition; the trio is, literally, in three parts (two violins and bass). The finale is another set of variations, outwardly similar to that in Symphony No. 42 (see vol.6), even to the inclusion of a separate variation for winds alone. Its witty theme is no less beguiling, if less eccentric, than that of the slow movement. In addition, this is a clear early example of Haydn's 'variation-rondo' (another of his many formal inventions), adumbrated again in the finale of No. 42. After Variation 2, the variation pattern breaks off in favor of a modulating interlude based on violent contrasts, which leads to a new variation in G flat, the flat mediant the first such 'remote' key relation, as far as is known, in any variation movement. But its second half again resumes the modulations, eventually returning to the tonic for a last, rousing/orte variation and a brief, witty 'tag' ending.

Analysis

Analyse

Analysis oft he movements

1. movement
60,1
Title oft he movement
Allegro di molto
Key
E flat major
Form
sonataform
2. movement
60,2
Title oft he movement
Adagio, ma semplicemente
Key
B flat major
Form
Variationsrondo
3. movement
60,3
Title oft he movement
Menuetto / Trio
Key
E flat-E flat major
4. movement
60,4
Title oft he movement
Presto
Key
E flat major
Form
variationrondo
Duration
appr. 25 min.

Musicians

Musiker

Musicians

Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given.  As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London.  Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".

Direction
Joseph Haydn
Instrumentation
0|2|0|1 – 2|0 – 0 – Str.
Cast oft he orchestra
0|2|0|1 – 2|0 – 0 – Str.
Cast
Flute Franz Sigl 1761-1773
Flute Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790
Oboe Michael Kapfer 1761-1769
Oboe Georg Kapfer 1761-1770
Oboe Anton Mayer 1782-1790
Oboe Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790
Bassoon Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777
Bassoon Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790
Bassoon Joseph Steiner 1781-1790
Horn (played violin) Franz Pauer 1770-1790
Horn (played violin) Joseph Oliva 1770-1790
Timpani or Bassoon Caspar Peczival 1773-1790
Violin Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790
Violin (leader 2. Vl) Johann Tost 1783-1788
Violin Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790
Violin Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790
Violin Vito Ungricht 1777-1790
Violin (most Viola) Christian Specht 1777-1790
Cello Anton Kraft 1779-1790
Violone Carl Schieringer 1768-1790

Medias

Medien

Music

Antal Dorati

Joseph Haydn
The Symphonies
Philharmonia Hungarica
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)

1. movement
60,1
2. movement
60,2
3. movement
60,3
4. movement
60,4



Score

55









Haydn13
×

SINFONIE 107

1757

1. Periode
Hob.I:1

1757-1759

1. Periode
Hob.I:37
Hob.I:18
Hob.I:2

1757-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:4
Hob.I:27

1758-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:10
Hob.I:20

1761/1762

1. Periode
Hob.I:36
Hob.I:33

1771

4. Periode
Hob.I:52
Hob.I:42

1773/1774

4. Periode
Hob.I:50

1774/1775

5. Periode
Hob.I:68

1776

5. Periode
Hob.I:61

1777/1778

5. Periode
Hob.I:53 "L'Impériale"

1778/1779

5. Periode
Hob.I:71

1780

5. Periode
Hob.I:74
Hob.I:62

1781

5. Periode
Hob.I:73 "La chasse"

1787

8. Periode
Hob.I:89

-1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:88

1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:90
Hob.I:91

1789

8. Periode
Hob.I:92 "Oxford"

1791/1792

9. Periode
Hob.I:98

1793

10. Periode
Hob.I:99

1794

10. Periode
Hob.I:102

OPER 13

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I. Periode
Acide
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Lo speziale
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Le pescatrici
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
L'infedeltà delusa
 
I. Periode
L'infedeltà delusa
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
L'incontro improvviso
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
Il mondo della luna
 
II. Periode
 
III. Periode
 
III. Periode
La fedeltà premiata
 
III. Periode
Orlando paladino
 
III. Periode
Armida
 
III. Periode
La vera costanza II