JOSEPH HAYDN

107 SINFONIE

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Parkhotel Pörtschach

53

"L'Impériale"

D major

The Project

Order by Hoboken
Hob.I: 53
Chronological order
70
Key
D major
Title
"L'Impériale"
Period
Late Esterház-sinfonias 1774 to 1782; The period of the „opera-symphonies“
Date of composition
1777/1778
Customer
Prince Nikolaus I. Joseph Esterházy
Number of movements
4
Authenticity proof
Haydnverzeichnis
Score edition

Sinfonien um 1777-1779
Herausgeber: Sonja Gerlach und Stephen C. Fisher; Reihe I, Band 9; G. Henle Verlag München

Symphony No. 53 in D major ('L'Imperiale')
The slow introduction, Largo maestoso, leads to a Vivace with, for Haydn, unusually consistent four-bar phrasing, further emphasised by the slow harmonic motion, owing to the triadic construction of the main motif. Perhaps this implies an association with stage music, which we know is the case for the finale. This unusual phrasing persists not only in the second group, when the main theme is transferred to the bass with an active quaver countermelody above, but, more surprisingly, throughout the first part of the development. The latter does eventually become contrapuntal, speeding up if this is not interpretative overkill to two-bar units; eventually, in a wonderful passage of 'suspended animation', the main motif leads chromatically under sustained winds back to the recapitulation. In the minuet, the second part characteristically 'closes' onto a deceptive cadence, following which an analogous passage over a dominant pedal prepares the final flourish.
The Andante theme sounds as if Haydn could have adapted it from a popular tune, although no model has been located; most probably he composed it himself. It stands for his entire world, in which apparent artlessness conceals high art. Simple in texture, it is a straightforward double period, 8+8 bars; each strain is divided into 4+4 bars by half-cadences, and further into 2+2+2+2 bars by the constant two-bar subphrases, always on the same motif. Yet each subphrase is different from all the others; moreover, in the second strain the accompaniment is quietly transformed into something syncopated, chromatic and legato, leading to a distinct, if understated, climax. As a whole, the movement is an early example of what became Haydn's favourite slow movement form: double variations on alternating major and minor versions of related themes.
Of the two finales (see the Historical and Chronological Notes), the later one, 'A', is marked 'Capriccio. Moderato'. Its main theme is an elaborate two-part construction: a | b | a, with a modulation to the dominant in 'b'; its apparently placid course is belied by the five-bar phrasing in 'a'. The movement as a whole is a large-scale ternary form, with the middle section in the tonic minor; it begins with the same motif but soon goes its own way, with an odd 'whining' melody at the first cadence, a quasi-development section (at one point
recalling the first movement of Mozart's 'Jupiter' Symphony) and a very long retransition based on the main motif. The reprise is expanded considerably at the close. The earlier finale 'B' confirms its origins as an overture by its bustling activity (except in the second theme), its lack of internal repetitions, and its long, sequential development.

Analysis

Analyse

Analysis oft he movements

1. movement
70,1a
 
70,1b
Title oft he movement
Largo maestoso / Vivace
Key
D major
Form
sonataform
2. movement
70,2
Title oft he movement
Andante
Key
D major
Form
variationform
3. movement
70,3
Title oft he movement
Menuetto / Trio
Key
D-D major
4. movement
70,4
Title oft he movement
Moderato
Key
D major
Form
rondo
Duration
appr. 25 min.

Musicians

Musiker

Musicians

Due to the unclear time of origin of most of Haydn’s symphonies - and unlike his 13 Italian operas, where we really know the exact dates of premieres and performances - detailed and correct name lists of the orchestral musicians cannot be given.  As a rough outline, his symphony works can be divided into three temporal blocks. In the first block, in the service of Count Morzin (1757-1761), in the second block, the one at the court of the Esterházys (1761-1790 but with the last symphony for the Esterház audience in 1781) and the third block, the one after Esterház (1782-1795), i.e. in Paris and London.  Just for this middle block at the court of the Esterházys 1761-1781 (the last composed symphony for the Esterház audience) respectively 1790, at the end of his service at the court of Esterház we can choose Haydn’s most important musicians and “long-serving companions” and thereby extract an "all-time - all-stars orchestra".

Direction
Joseph Haydn
Instrumentation
1|2|0|2 – 2|0 – 1 – Str.
Cast oft he orchestra
1|2|0|2 – 2|0 – 1 – Str.
Cast
Flute Franz Sigl 1761-1773
Flute Zacharias Hirsch 1777-1790
Oboe Michael Kapfer 1761-1769
Oboe Georg Kapfer 1761-1770
Oboe Anton Mayer 1782-1790
Oboe Joseph Czerwenka 1784-1790
Bassoon Johann Hinterberger 1761-1777
Bassoon Franz Czerwenka 1784-1790
Bassoon Joseph Steiner 1781-1790
Horn (played violin) Franz Pauer 1770-1790
Horn (played violin) Joseph Oliva 1770-1790
Timpani or Bassoon Caspar Peczival 1773-1790
Violin Luigi Tomasini 1761-1790
Violin (leader 2. Vl) Johann Tost 1783-1788
Violin Joseph Purgsteiner 1766-1790
Violin Joseph Dietzl 1766-1790
Violin Vito Ungricht 1777-1790
Violin (most Viola) Christian Specht 1777-1790
Cello Anton Kraft 1779-1790
Violone Carl Schieringer 1768-1790

Medias

Medien

Music

Antal Dorati

Joseph Haydn
The Symphonies
Philharmonia Hungarica
33 CDs, aufgenommen 1970 bis 1974, herausgegeben 1996 Decca (Universal)

1. movement
70,1a
 
70,1b
2. movement
70,2
3. movement
70,3
4. movement
70,4



Score

53









Haydn13
×

SINFONIE 107

1757

1. Periode
Hob.I:1

1757-1759

1. Periode
Hob.I:37
Hob.I:18
Hob.I:2

1757-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:4
Hob.I:27

1758-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:10
Hob.I:20

1761/1762

1. Periode
Hob.I:36
Hob.I:33

1771

4. Periode
Hob.I:52
Hob.I:42

1773/1774

4. Periode
Hob.I:50

1774/1775

5. Periode
Hob.I:68

1776

5. Periode
Hob.I:61

1777/1778

5. Periode
Hob.I:53 "L'Impériale"

1778/1779

5. Periode
Hob.I:71

1780

5. Periode
Hob.I:74
Hob.I:62

1781

5. Periode
Hob.I:73 "La chasse"

1787

8. Periode
Hob.I:89

-1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:88

1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:90
Hob.I:91

1789

8. Periode
Hob.I:92 "Oxford"

1791/1792

9. Periode
Hob.I:98

1793

10. Periode
Hob.I:99

1794

10. Periode
Hob.I:102

OPER 13

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I. Periode
Acide
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Lo speziale
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Le pescatrici
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
L'infedeltà delusa
 
I. Periode
L'infedeltà delusa
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
L'incontro improvviso
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
Il mondo della luna
 
II. Periode
 
III. Periode
 
III. Periode
La fedeltà premiata
 
III. Periode
Orlando paladino
 
III. Periode
Armida
 
III. Periode
La vera costanza II